Photo Slideshow
See all of the photos from this story
Download PDF
Download a printable PDF version of this article

芜湖辉飞厚科技有限公司

小仙女2app直播免费下载

By Aaron Hoover

盐城裕兴大服务有限公司

Modern medicine has defeated a lot of bogeymen, but it remains locked in a war of attrition with an age-old nemesis: infection.

Nationwide, hospital care workers confront about 1.7 million healthcare-related infections annually — and lose about 99,000 patients to them, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That’s more than double the fatalities tied to auto wrecks every year.

What’s worse, medicine’s main weapons are flawed or weakening. Disinfectants are impossible to apply everywhere, inevitably leaving spots for bacteria to grow. Chemical controls, such as coated implants, can have dangerous side effects or harm the environment. Antibiotics, one-time miracle cures, are losing their punch to genetically resistant bacteria.

But common menaces such as Staphylococcus aureus, as well as more dangerous cousins such as “flesh eating” methicillin-resistant staph — commonly known by the initials MRSA — may soon face a new barrier.

Ironically, it is inspired by a fearsome flesh eater of its own kind: the shark.

Conventional controls aim to kill bacteria. Tapping the discoveries of a University of Florida materials science and engineering researcher, UF biotechnology spin-off Sharklet Technologies has a radically different approach. The Alachua-based company seeks to discourage bacteria from colonizing surfaces in hospitals and medical devices using a microscopic pattern modeled on the skin of the ocean’s most notorious predator.

Sharklet is gearing up to sell what it calls “engineered surfaces” that, laboratory tests show, ward off not only staph and Escherichia coli, but also the more dangerous MRSA, Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

“We believe we will have hygienic surface covers on the market this year,” says Sharklet Technologies CEO Joe Bagan. “We’re working on different medical devices to put our pattern on, and it’s going to be a little longer for those. Maybe a couple of years.”

遵义吉光如科技有限公司


The latest weapon in the war on bacteria didn’t spring from a medical laboratory. Instead, it is rooted in materials science and engineering Professor Tony Brennan’s efforts to solve a seemingly unrelated problem: how to keep algae from coating the hulls of submarines and ships.

Some people are lucky enough to have great ideas. For Brennan, it was more a matter of asking a great question.

Brennan remembers the day well. He was visiting the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Oahu in 2002 as part of his Navy-sponsored research. Convinced he could stop tiny algal spores from attaching by using rows of microscopic channels, he had eagerly awaited a look at experimental samples previously submerged in the harbor. But the results were abysmal, with the samples coming out of the water festooned with algae.

He and a handful of colleagues were watching an algae-coated nuclear submarine leave port when the question popped into his head.

“The submarine looked like a big whale lumbering out of the harbor,” Brennan says. “I asked, ‘Do whales foul?’ And everyone said, ‘yeah, whales are heavily fouled.’ So I started asking the question, ‘which marine and freshwater animals don’t foul?’”

He couldn’t get the question answered to his satisfaction that day. But follow-up research revealed that of all big marine animals, sharks remain most glisteningly smooth.

Brennan spent much of his career engineering new biomaterials for dental implants. He asked a colleague at the Florida Institute of Technology, Geoffrey Swain, to take an impression of a shark skin using a common silicone material. Like an impression for an ordinary tooth crown, it provided a negative imprint — in this case, a small, but visible pattern of rounded-off, diamond like, scales. (Many people believe sharks don’t have scales. In fact, the creatures’ scales are very small. They are known as placoid scales, or dermal denticles.)

Each scale was made up of seven tiny ribs. Brennan used a special tool, an optical profilometer, to measure the scales’ corresponding roughness. To his surprise, the ribs’ width-to-height ratios closely matched one of his mathematical models for roughness — one that he had estimated would discourage algae spores from settling.

At the time, Brennan believed the spores would have a negative reaction to surface roughness features measured in a handful of microns. The shark scale ribs were far bigger. So he shrunk the sharkskin rib pattern by a factor of 20, separating each rib by two to five microns. Tapping a process similar to the one used to make computer chips, he next fabricated thousands of these tiny “riblet” patterns on plastic.

He plunged the plastic into algae-laced seawater, waited an hour and pulled it out.

“The first time we tested it,” Brennan says, “we had an 85-percent reduction in the settlement of green algae.”

石家庄长万春设备有限公司


It was just one small test with just one type of fouling organism, but the results were exciting. That’s because algae and its ilk are major problems not only for the Navy but for all shippers. Fouled vessels have more drag as they move through water, slowing them and cutting into their fuel efficiency. The Navy estimates fouled hulls use 15 to 30 percent more fuel than clean ones, raising its fuel bill by tens of millions of dollars.

Following in the footsteps of shipbuilders since antiquity, the Navy and commercial shipping lines have fought the problem with copper-based paint. But pollution and cost concerns spurred the Navy to look for more environmentally friendly, less expensive solutions.

With the Office of Naval Research’s continued sponsorship, Brennan set about confirming and expanding his results while also seeking to understand the underlying mechanism. He applied for his first patent in 2004. Several years and at least $1 million later — the Florida High Technology Corridor Council has also been a supporter — Brennan has confirmed that his pattern resists not only green algae but also some varieties of barnacles. He has received two patents, has applications for several more patents under consideration and continues to work toward testing the pattern on real-life ship hulls.

Meanwhile, the research has also expanded in a vastly different direction. One of the fouling organisms that Brennan sought to discourage was the tubeworm. Tubeworms need bacteria to settle. So, in the spring of 2005, he asked an undergraduate at work in his laboratory to grow some bacteria on the Sharklet™ pattern.

A few weeks later, Mathew Blackburn reported back: He couldn’t do it. The E. coli bacteria would not attach. Brennan assigned two graduate students to work with Blackburn, but the team could coax the E. coli to grow only up to the side of the pattern.

It wasn’t until Brennan read Blackburn’s final report that the idea dawned on him: Perhaps the pattern could do more than ward off organisms that go after ships. Maybe it could discourage those bad bacteria that target people.

“He thought he was failing, and when I got his report and looked at it, it was like, ‘Holy smokes!’” Brennan says. “This could be very interesting.”

大庆永圣吉科技有限公司

Marine fouling organisms and bacteria are very different life forms. But the two also share important similarities, Brennan says. Both can move, and both put down adhesive pads when they first stick to a surface. Green algae and many bacteria also seem to appreciate company. They take hold singly or in small groups, then seek to establish large colonies.

Like other life forms, Brennan says, bacteria and fouling organisms seek the path of least resistance. He believes the Sharklet pattern discourages colonization because it requires too much energy to put down roots. The consequence: The organisms decide to keep house hunting. With enough surface protected, the theory goes, they die or become less of a threat.

Whatever the mechanism, the Sharklet pattern works — in laboratory tests, at least.
The Navy’s interests were confined to fouling, so Brennan turned to UF’s extensive medical resources to pursue the medical applications.

In 2007, he founded Sharklet Technologies, based at UF’s Sid Martin Biotechnology Development Incubator. There, Brennan chairs the company’s scientific advisory board.

Brennan’s and the company’s tests reveal that the pattern is remarkably effective at delaying colonization from staph, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and other pathogens. Bagan, Sharklet Technologies’ CEO, says the independent infectious disease laboratory also found a “statistically significant” difference in the survival of MRSA and VRE bacteria in short time trials.

Sharklet Technologies’ time-lapse images tell the tale graphically.

Bacterial colonies grow steadily on a smooth surface over a period of three weeks, whereas they seem to struggle to get established on the Sharklet pattern. By day 21, bacterial films turn 77 percent of the smooth surface bright red —
versus 35 percent of the Sharklet pattern.

As promising as the results have been, the pattern has yet to be tested in a real medical setting. But that’s about to change.

Bagan says Sharklet Technologies has cleared all the major hurdles in an effort to test adhesive-backed versions of the pattern on common hospital surfaces at a large California hospital. Technicians, he says, have already determined the surfaces most likely to contain large bacterial colonies. Known as “high-touch” surfaces, they include nursing call buttons, bed rail control panels and touch-screen cardiac monitor screens. The company plans to apply the adhesive-backed Sharklet pattern to these surfaces and then monitor them for colonization.

Down the road, Sharklet Technologies also hopes to cover and test medical devices and instruments. Bagan says that because the pattern is not a chemical coating and does not introduce any new substances, it probably will not require clinical trials, but some safety trials may be needed.

Whatever the hurdles, the market is huge. The CDC estimates that 32 percent of all healthcare-related infections are tied to urinary tract infections, often stemming from urinary catheters. If the Sharklet pattern could make catheters safer, that alone would have a huge impact.

Brennan, for his part, is eager to gauge his invention’s appeal.

“I am anxious to see this thing put out there because once you put it on the market, you really get a test,” he says. “The market will determine viability.”

 

 

related link:
www.sharklet.com鸡西台恒巨科技有限公司

东川晶全百有限公司
湖南省捷成汇科技有限公司
好男人影视 网址你懂我意思吧菠萝 嘟嘟嘟动漫网在线 不出来 放在里面睡觉 芒果app免费观看 骚虎影视 为什么狗狗放我里面就变大 久草原精品资源视频 91短视频app下载 名优馆app下载官网 小草在线直播视频 xrk.向日葵app下载安装污 按摩按着按着就做了 泡芙视频app 在线萝福利莉视频网免费 小草在线观看视频免费 伊人久久大香线蕉影院 久久中文字幕人妻熟女 japanese日本护士booloo 磁力搜索-bt天堂 暖暖在线观看视频 秘密教学 50集 草莓视频在线安装app污下载 老司机网站 麻豆传媒在线高清视频在线观看 烈火动漫 sg99.xy丝瓜视频苹果下载 啪嗒高清视频在线观看 muzhi.baidu.com 含羞草麻豆传媒实验室 烈火动漫 swag弯弯 国产乱对白刺激视频 人妻免费伦费影视在线观看 茄子短视频污版下载app污视频 奇米网 麻豆传媒怎么下载啊 老2828电影 暖暖视频在线观看日本 在线萝福利莉视频网免费 蜜柚app直播下载官网 护士给病人啪高潮流视频 一一影视网 668看片网 荔枝视频app 67194线路1(点击进入) 菠萝蜜视频视频免费观看 女人蹬坑小便视频 md.pud 污污视频有疼痛声音免费 小草在线 小草观看免费播放2019 鸭脖视频app 狠狠躁天天躁中文字幕 男女直接做的视频免费 蜜桔视频 快猫 pr18 午夜福利 92 200集 老汉av 泰国幻女破包视频 歪歪漫画在线阅读在线阅读官网 女学生黄频大全视频免费 把腿张开让男人使劲桶 麻豆传媒视频在线免费 菠萝蜜视频在线app视频 小草在线观看免费观看国语 学生 国产 欧美 自拍 aff91抖音 成都黑帽门最新链接 泡芙短视频 小草免费高清在线视频 蝶恋花直播app下载 农村老熟妇乱子伦视频 碟调网 芭乐视频带你另眼看世界 吉泽明步空乘务长在线观看 虫虫直播在线观看 啪嗒啪嗒美女视频 100000部免费视频观看 污视频.app污下载安装 把腿张开让男人使劲桶 草莓APP 撤尿大全 秘密教学 50集 番茄视频app下载 小草青青免费视频 暖暖免费视频观看日本 蝶恋花直播app官方下载地址 午夜福利 92 200集 汤姆影视 向日葵视频app下载免费视频 午夜不卡片在线机视频 麻豆印画传媒视频全集 艾米影院 香蕉视频5app下载官方 aff91抖音 野草视频在线观看免费 国产乡下三级全黄三级 一一电影网 大香伊在人线免 小草在线观看播放视频 抖阴软件 善良的小峓子完整版国语 芒果视频污app污下载 网站你懂我意思吧直播app免费 72种性姿势真人示范 法国y乱妇产科诊所电影 麻豆传媒直播官网 呦女导航 小蝌蚪app 秋霞免费一级鲁丝片 菠萝蜜app污污高清完整视频菠萝蜜app污免费 芒果app免费观看 爱情岛论坛在线路线一免费观看 暖暖电影免费观看 试看120秒高清做受视频 十大免费最污的软件下载 国内夫妇交换自拍视频 野花视频最新官网 秋葵视频app下载 456人成在线观看 暖暖电影免费观看 swag全站解锁版 麻豆传媒原创视频在线 麻豆原创视频高清在线观看 超高清国产免费毛卡片 碟调网 小草免费观看在线 直播盒子 青青河边草手机免费视频 我和公gong在厨房在线观看 年轻人在线观看视频 办公室浪荡女秘在线观看 麻豆影视传媒在线 一一高清免费观看 y y 4480 女人蹬坑小便视频 向日葵视频污免费下载app在线看 富二代app官网下载 高级会所俱乐部5换 乱群 小草在线观看视频免费2019 小草视频免费视频观看 久热这里只有精品视频6 purhub入口 妈妈的朋友8 337p人体粉嫩胞高清视频 年轻母亲5完整高清免费观看 md3.pud 麻豆传媒官网 kkkk4444con免费观看 在线观看未18禁免费视频 老湿机一分钟一分 九悠悠 人与狗交 2019中文字幕无线乱码视频大全_ 秋葵视频二维码安卓下载安装 男女激烈性高爱潮视频 a级片 芭乐app下载免费下载 上色的视频 天堂mv手机在线mv观看 豆奶短视频app安卓免费下载 三三电影网 qksp.伪pp tom影院入口tom在线 爱情岛免费网站路线一 日本jazz亚洲护士水多多 泡芙短视频APP网站 试看120分钟做受小视频 萝双腿之间乳白液体视频 小草在线观看直播 高清录播服务器 放放影院 芭乐app下载免费 暖暖视频在线观看视频直播 f2富二代app官方版 向日葵视频污免费下载app在线看 swag.live ios 暖暖视频手机在线观看 免费任你躁国语自产在线播放 5哺乳20下垂 麻豆传媒官网怎么进 男人将机机桶美女软件大全 色色影院 老板来了免费观看视频 免费麻豆传媒视频在线观看 茄子视频app下载 窃窃私语李青老陈免费阅读完整 污视频软件app下载大全 swag弯弯 金瓶春梦一级毛片 菠萝蜜视频菠萝蜜网站 老富婆全程露脸在线观看 欧美重囗味sM在线观看 在线萝福利莉视频网免费 国产在线 国自产学生视频在线观看 护士给病人啪高潮流视频 自拍 亚洲 综合 另类小说 菠萝蜜视频污视频免费观看 小草社区观看 2020最新国自产拍视频网站 麻豆传媒 食色app 麻豆印画传媒视频全集 合欢视频app免费安装 视频 小草在线观看视频播放免费 菠萝蜜app污污高清在线观看 丝瓜视频.污视频app在线观看 冬瓜视频 A级片 短视频app成版人抖音免费 榴莲视频app最新版安装 免费一级录像直级打开 直播盒子 小蝌蚪APP 人妻无码手机在线中文 国内夫妇交换自拍视频 橙子视频免费下载 app 小草视频免费视频 极乐鉴宝 芭乐视频下载app下载污 免费精品国自产拍在线不卡 富二代f2抖音app污短 樱桃app 男人插曲女人机机视频中国 短视频app成版人抖音免费 在线萝福利莉视频网站 榴莲视频下载 菠萝视频app在线观看 高清拍拍拍无挡视频免费1000 初恋视频 麻豆印画传媒视频在线播放 很详细的肉肉床文片段 在线萝福利莉视频网免费 成app人污在线观看 鸭脖视频app 麻豆传媒直播官网 向日葵视频下载污app。 蝶恋花直播app下载 芭乐视频草莓视频向日葵视频黄瓜视频下载污 免费观看女人与狥交 aff91抖音 蝶恋花直播间app 香蕉播放器 20岁china男同志免费 小仙女2app直播免费下载 父母儿女换着来 污软件app免费软件大全 亚洲 自拍 综合 图区 小说 md.pud ppctin土豆下载 豆奶抖音短视频在线 安卓快喵安装包 小14萝视频资源站第一集 sg99.xy丝瓜视频苹果下载 videosdesexeen英国 中国女人province老师 唐朝TV 成都黑帽门免费连接 欧美BBw性色大片 视频 污APP 麻豆传媒系列手机视频在线 2019中文字幕无线乱码视频大全_ 白洁无删全文在线听书 猫咪视频app 裸体瑜伽XXXX视频 女人张脚男人桶app免费 富二代f2抖音app 暖暖视频大全免费高清 国产午夜福利A片 .www红色一片 抽搐一进一出gif试看体验区 久热爱精品视频在线9 麻豆传媒 猛虎视频app下载免费 国拍自产精品福利区 红颜app下载安装 骚虎影院 香蕉视频5app下载官方 猛虎视频污污版视频大全 小蝌蚪app 网站你懂我意思吧,在线观看 9月黑客最新破解摄像头 f2富二代app官方版 草莓视频APP下载 抖音成版人APP下载 龚玥菲版金瓶1一5集 法国y乱妇产科诊所电影 农村老熟妇乱子伦视频 九九热爱视频精品视频16 逗奶 男人将机机桶美女软件大全 小草新视频在线观看在线播放 男女试看60秒做受 tom影院入口tom在线 向日葵视频下载色板污 小草2019最新 豆奶短视频app安卓免费下载 japanese日本护士booloo 四平青年1 国拍自产精品福利区 波多野结衣办公室33分钟 小草观看免费播放2019 男女激烈性高爱潮视频 小 永久免费视频在线观看 正在播放东北豪放野战 大秀直播 9uu 在线豆奶app成版人抖音 水果视频污app黄安卓下载免费 拍拍拍拍无档免费视频 中文字幕国产综合 网站你懂我意思吧,在线观看 芭乐app下载免费下载 我和公么在厨房韩国 富二代.app污下载安装ios 100000部免费视频观看 快猫污 呦女 专区 免费麻豆传媒视频在线观看 蜜柚app软件下载污 国自产学生视频在线观看 超碰欧美人人澡曰曰澡夜夜泛 天堂mv手机在线mv观看 老富婆全程露脸在线观看 超prorm在线 swag全站解锁版 私人影视 榴莲视频.app 污免费下载 抽搐一进一出gif试看 视频 video 13 一级处 sg99.xy丝瓜视频 波多野结高清无码中文观看 chinese高中生飞机视频 国内免费久久这里有精品 樱桃电视剧在线观看免费 浪浪视频 2345影视大全最新免费版 九悠悠 男人将机机桶美女软件大全 5g影院 短视频app成版人抖音免费 一级看片男女性高爱潮视频 9月黑客最新破解摄像头 体验区免费观看15次 八戒私人院影 免费可以看污APP 天仙tv在线看 国产在线 成都4视频在线观看 抽搐一进一出gif香蕉视频 久热爱精品视频在线9 伊人久久大香线蕉影院 婚后试爱在线观看 pr九天狐视频 为爱而生官网 9月黑客最新破解摄像头 秋葵视频.apk下载ioios版 swag台湾官方网址是多少 宜家视频16分钟完整在线 天天看特色大片视频 男人将机机桶女人全集视频 www.w k 47.co m 在线豆奶app成版人抖音 老司机网站 豆奶短视频下载安卓版污无限制 富二代app官网下载ios 超碰人人 富二代app官方下载 麻豆传媒视频 哈哈动漫网 虫虫直播在线观看 亚洲 欧洲 日产 天天看高清特色大片 人性联盟 男人将机机桶美女软件大全 中国母亲在线观看 私人订制在线观看视频 透明内内一级毛一片 国拍自产精品亚洲AV 麻豆网站 暖暖在线观看视频 茄子视频app 豆奶短视频app官网在线 成都4视频在线观看 磁力搜索-bt天堂 年轻人看片 麻豆传媒在线高清观看 美国大臿蕉香蕉大视频在线 暖暖视频全集免费 yy6680 富二代f2 疯狂输出白丝JK视频 坐在吃饭连在巨大一起 久久久久鸭视频 色色影院 成都黑帽门全集视频 污软件app免费软件大全 芭乐视频 男女性高爱潮A级视频 老司机网站 男女下面进入的视频 91香蕉App 丝瓜 视频 app 污 视频 在线观看 芭乐视频在线观看App pr九尾狐 小草电影在线观看下载 向日葵草莓丝瓜视频污下载 榴莲视频app最新版安装 老汉av 艾米影院 麻豆传媒官网在线观看 成都黑帽门10分53秒 樱桃电视剧在线观看免费 暖暖视频免费视频播放在线观看 浪货两个都满足不了你 琪琪大香线蕉手机视频 丝瓜视频在线观看 app下载 麻豆官网首页 被窝网 做暖暖视频大全高清 小草青青免费视频观看 小草在线观看视频播放免费 pr九尾狐 free性欧美tv潮喷frSex 麻豆传媒原创av 暖暖直播免费观看视频 麻豆传媒原创视频在线 一级A片直播免费国语视频 豆奶视频app官网最新版下载ios 丝瓜视频.污视频app在线观看 榴莲视频app污 app 暖暖视频全集免费 暖暖在线观看高清视频日本 皮皮高清影视 麻豆传媒官网 小草免费视频播放 千层浪黄 茄子视频app下载 男人机机桶女人 试看视频 污污视频有疼痛声音 黄版抖音app 疯狂输出白丝JK视频 9uu.coo 男女性交视频 暖暖视频手机在线观看 深爱视频 99re8热视频这在线视频 99re6热视频这里只精品15 小草在线视频免费观看播放 久久中文字幕人妻熟女 逗奶 free性欧美tv潮喷frSex 向日葵视频下载色板污 男女爱爱女的不停的叫床视频 4438x21全国大成网人网站 唐朝tv XXXchinese pissing HD 歪歪漫画在线观看 亚洲 欧美 清纯 校园 另类 小草电影在线观看下载 麻豆传媒直播官网在线观看 嘟嘟嘟动漫网在线 91Chinese honemade video 日本黄页日本黄页小视频 富二代f2抖音app污短 丝瓜 视频 app 污 视频 在线观看 yy111111手机在线观看琪琪 蝶恋花直播app官方下载地址 麻豆传媒原创视频在线 骚虎影视 麻豆传媒app官网 一色到底 欧洲日韩av无线在码 无敌影院视频在线播放 20岁china男同志免费 午夜免费体验区30分钟 女人把脚张来开让男人桶App 最新麻豆原创在线观看视频 桃红色界 富二代app官方下载 试看60秒的做受视频 23部獸交小說 一级A片直播免费国语视频 pr18 d2天堂在线观看 app 学生小视频国产区 草莓视频在线安装app污下载 歪歪漫画在线阅读在线阅读官网 蜜桔视频下载app安装 猫咪app下载 老湿影机ⅹ一分钟免费 年轻的妈妈 优衣库无删减全长11分24秒 爱情岛免费网站路线一在线观看 父母儿女换着来 videosdesexeen英国 小草在线影院免费观看 色啦啦 廖承宇做受被c22分钟 成都黑帽门10分53秒 茄子视频APP 成都黑帽门10分53秒 chinese中国人在线视频 芭乐app-草莓app黄下载-丝瓜草莓视频 有容乃大的二维码 影视大全在线观看免费观看 maya确认你已年满 一对一app 131美女爱做视频免费 网站你懂我意思吧直播app免费 麻豆影视传媒在线 善良的小峓子 日本一道免费一二区 8x8xcom最新版20站 7b63.C0M